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cPanel Webhosting.

cPanel is most user friendly panel in web hosting. Most of the shared hosting provider , reseller, dedicated & cloud server use this panel to manage client’s site or their own site. Most important feature of cPanel is it provide lots of features like. Create email accounts, setting filters, forwarders, FTP accounts , Password protect folders etc…

For hosting provider it is very important to manage and monitor activities going on their server especially on shared server. Main advantage of shared hosting server is you can host lots of sites and oversell resources.

What is overselling. Suppose you have server with 16 CPUs, 300 GB disk, 10 TB (10240 GB) bandwidth and 32 GB RAM. Such server will cost provide around $200 per month. Here hosting provider will provide client basic plan like: 10 GB , and 100 GB bandwidth for $2. He would able to host such 500 Clients on his cPanel server because most of the client ie. 90% will not use even 10 GB bandwidth and 1 GB disk space while hosting a site. Also most of sites will have very low traffic in such case they will not be using even 1% of server’s total resources.

In this way shared hosting server would able to make $1000 per server costing him $200 including cPanel license.

I will write few more post about Web hosting business. Feel free to raise any question either technical or non-technical in comment or contact us form. I would glad to assist free of cost.

Run batch script as administrator

Many times we need to run batch script as administrator. For that we need to right click hit run as administrator and execute it. Many blogger has suggested to modify script with few commands like runas same people provided tricks with powershell. But non of that works.

Simple trick to run batch script as administrator is

Right click on batch  script >> Create shortcut >>
Right click on shortcut >> Click on Advance >>
Check Run as administrator >> Save changes. 

Now whenever you will click shortcut it will run that batch script as administrator.

Setup LAMP on centos 7

Here are steps provided to install LAMP on centos 7.

Check version of OS using command

cat /etc/redhat-release

Command to install all packages required for Apache, mysql and php

yum install httpd php php-mysql mariadb-server -y

Let’s enable and start all services using commands

systemctl enable httpd mariadb

Now start httpd and mariadb services.

systemctl start httpd mariadb

Try to access your server IP in browser and you will find apache accessible.

To check php version execute following command

echo "<?php phpinfo(); ?>" > /var/www/html/phpinfo.php

Try to access this page using url

http://IP-of-machine/phpinfo.php

Let’s configure mysql service.

To configure MariaDB, run ‘mysql_secure_installation’

[root@midnight~]# mysql_secure_installation
/usr/bin/mysql_secure_installation: line 379: find_mysql_client: command not found

NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB
      SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user.  If you've just installed MariaDB, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none):
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MariaDB
root user without the proper authorisation.

Set root password? [Y/n] Y
New password: NewPasswordHere
Re-enter new password: NewPasswordHere
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!


By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] Y
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] Y
 ... Success!

By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] Y
 - Dropping test database...
 ... Success!
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] Y
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...

All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MariaDB!

 

Now your server is ready to host website supporting php and mysql database.

Restore a Deleted File in Linux

We will learn how to restore delete file in linux

Foremost is not available in any of the CentOS/RHEL repositories, so we’ll need to install it using RPM.

For centos 7 use following command

yum install https://forensics.cert.org/centos/cert/7/x86_64//foremost-1.5.7-13.1.el7.x86_64.rpm -y

For Centos 6 use following command

yum install https://forensics.cert.org/centos/cert/6/x86_64//foremost-1.5.7-13.1.el6.x86_64.rpm -y

Once formost installed let’s try to delete one file and recover it.

Get details of file midnight.jpg which we will delete and recover

file midnight.jpg
md5sum midnight.jpg

Now delete file

rm -f midnight.jpg

Restore a Deleted File

mkdir /root/recover
foremost -i /dev/sda1 -t jpg -o /root/recover/

Here -i used to specify disk and -t used to define type of file which we want to restore.
This command will find any .jpg files in /dev/sda1 and restore them into the /root/restored/ directory, as long as the space they are using on disk has not yet been overwritten by anything else.
Now go to /root/restored/jpg folder and execute md5sum 17602156.jpg and you will find md5 hash of this file is exactly same as that of midnight.jpg.

securing cpanel website

Here we will learn easy command which will correct permission and ownership of all files and folders from cPanel account.

Below is command to correct ownership and permission of all files and folders of cPanel user. To execute this command you need root user access.

Suppose are securing permission and ownership of cPanel user midnight. Then commands will be.

Correcting ownership of home directory

chown midnight.midnight /home/midnight

Command to set secure permission for home directory of cPanel user midnight

chown 711 /home/midnight

Following command will find all files and set secure permission as 644.

cd /home/midnight/public_html;find ./ -type f -exec chmod 644 "{}" \;

Now find all folders and set secure permission as 755

cd /home/midnight/public_html;find ./ -type d -exec chmod 755 "{}" \;

Above command will set 755 permission to public_html folder as well. But recommended permission for public_html folder is 750

cd /home/midnight/public_html;chmod 750 ../public_html

Now correcting ownership of all files and folders stored in public_html

cd /home/midnight/public_html;chown midnight.midnight ../public_html -R

Then correct ownership of public_html folder using command

cd /home/midnight/public_html;chown midnight.nobody ../public_html

You have set secure permissions and ownership to all files and folders for cPanel account midnight.

Open port using Firewalld

How to open port using firewalld command

To open specific port say 101 use following command

firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port=101/tcp

Then execute following command to reload firewalld service.

firewall-cmd reload

To remove opened port –remove-port as given below

firewall-cmd --permanent --remove-port==101/tcp
firewall-cmd --reload

Command to list ports opened in firewalld.

firewall-cmd --list-ports

How to open port range say 300-400 in firewalld

firewall-cmd --permanent --add-port=300-400/tcp
firewall-cmd --reload

Following command will list services whose ports are open

firewall-cmd --list-services

To open port of specific service command would be

firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service=http

To remove port of specific service command would be

firewall-cmd --permanent --remove-service=http

Firewalld on centos 7

We will learn few basic commands about Firewalld command on Centos version 7+

Command to check firewalld service status.

systemctl status firewalld

Command to disable firewalld service.

systemctl disable firewalld

Command to enable firewalld service.

systemctl enable firewalld

Command to start/stop firewalld service.

systemctl start firewalld
systemctl stop firewalld

To list firewall rules

iptables -L

Eagle eye on CPU usage

How to monitor CPU usage and server load.

In shared hosting or cloud hosting monitoring CPU usage and high load is essential part.

What is server load and when it shall considered as overloaded ?

Server could get overload because of excessive usage of CPU / Disk and RAM. We will learn how to monitor and know there is high CPU usage on server. Generally server load upto 1 for a single CPU server indicates very stable server. Server load upto 5 means it is bit overload but still nothing to worry but above 5 there is something wrong and user need to watch server load closely.

Commands to check server load.

1: w

2:uptime

3: top -d2

If user have server with multiple CPUs then normal server load range would vary for him accordingly. Like for server with 4 CPUs very stable server load is 4 and upto 16 server bit overloaded and above 16 user need to take care of CPU usage. Another important factor should be considered while monitoring server load is CPU %idle.

 

Administrator shall check CPU %idle if it is more than 30% then it can sit and allow to run processes/applications on server without worrying about server load. If it is less than 30% then services/application running on server will become less responsive and that time he need find and fix processes causing high CPU usage.

How to check %idle CPU ?

use command sar -u 1 1 this will show you present status of idle CPU in following example it is 85% which means server is stable and all applications running on server and responding quickly.

To check historical CPU idle% use command sar -u . Below is script which you can add in cronjob to monitor idle CPU usage. This script will monitor average “idle CPU” for 3 mins. If it get less than 30% then it will send an email to you. I recommend to set cron job every after 10 mins.

——————-

sar -u 10 3 | grep Average | awk '{print $NF}' > idlecpu
idlecpu=`cat idlecpu | cut -d. -f1`
echo $idlecpu
critical=30
if test $idlecpu -lt $critical
then
echo "CPU usage is high"
echo "Idle CPU is $idlecpu, this is critical. Timestamp `date` " | mail -s "Idle CPU % is less than 30" admin@midnight-cafe.com
else
if test $idlecpu -gt $critical
then
echo "CPU usage is okay"
else
echo "CPU usage is high"
echo "Idle CPU is $idlecpu, this is critical. Timestamp `date` " | mail -s "Idle CPU % is less than 30" admin@midnight-cafe.com
fi
fi
rm -f /home/idlecpu

——————-

Transfer Website from Weebly to WordPress

How to transfer a website from weebly to wordpress ?

Weebly is web designer software which make easy to design web site using weebly. But many advance web developer use wordpress CMS which provide more access to internal code. This is main reason people need to migrate site from weebly to wordpress.

But weebly doesn’t provide feature to export web site. There is a 3rd party tool named as WPBeginner weebly to wordpress site. We will learn in detail how to migrate using this tool.

Install WordPress

Setup new hosting account with your domain name (which is being used by weebly application). In order to install wordpress on the domain you don’t need to point dns of the domain to new hosting account. Instead just edit host file of your local PC and on last line add IP and domain in following format

IP-address-here yoursitename.com

This will point yoursitename.com to new IP (IP of new hosting account). Now install wordpress , and configure it like setting up theme, install required plugins for backup, security etc..and modify primary menu according to your original site requirement.

Migrate Content

Now we are ready to migrate data from weebly site to new wordpress site.

1: Visit url WeeblytoWP.com.

2: Insert your Weebly website URL (starting with HTTP:// or HTTPS://), name, and email account before clicking Export my Weebly Website.

3: Save the Export file.

4: In WordPress, after downloading your Weebly export file, select Tools and Import.

5: Select WordPress to install and activate the WordPress Import Plugin.

6: Select Run Importer at the top of the screen.

7: Browse for your RSS file before selecting Upload file and import.

8: Make any preferred changes on the Import Settings and assign an author to the imported posts. You can create an author or use an existing user.

The imported content should now show in their respective sections in WordPress.

Import Content Manually.

Many text and contents will not available in export file which will need to be copy manually. ie. Create page / post on your wordpress site and then copy text from weebly to wordpress pages/post and publish them.

Now time to Import images.

We recommend to use WordPress plugin. such as Save & Import Image from URL to import directly from Weebly. 

The easiest way to get an image URL:

For browser like Google Chrome: Right-click the image and select Open image in a new tab.

Fix Permalinks:

Now setting up Permalinks so that format of url’s of old website should match to new site’s url so that your user will not get 404 error while accessing urls using bookmarks. Also you will not need to submit urls for indexing. It can be set from WordPress > Wp-admin > Setting > Permalinks

rsync to copy difference

Rsync to copy difference of source and destination.

We use rsync command to copy files from source to destination. Rsync command sync modified/update files and newly created files on destination server.

But user need copy modified files and newly created files on source as compared to destination to be copied in separate folder.

I created 3 folders in /home as r1 r2 and r3. Then I touched 5 files named as 1 2 3 4 5 in r1 and r2 and r3 are empty.

Here source=/home/r1 destination=/home/r2 and difference=/home/r3

Output of ls -l for r1 r2 and r3 as given below:

[root@midnight home]# ls -l r1
total 0
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 0 Sep 17 01:30 1
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 0 Sep 17 01:30 2
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 0 Sep 17 01:30 3
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 0 Sep 17 01:30 4
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 0 Sep 17 01:30 5

[root@midnight home]# ls -l r2
total 0

[root@midnight home]# ls -l r3
total 0

Now. I will copy r1 to r2 and paste output.

rsync -va /home/r1/ /home/r2/

[root@midnight home]# rsync -va /home/r1/ /home/r2/
sending incremental file list
./
1
2
3
4
5

sent 306 bytes received 114 bytes 840.00 bytes/sec
total size is 0 speedup is 0.00

List all files from r2.

[root@midnight home]# ls -lt r2
total 0
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 0 Sep 17 01:30 1
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 0 Sep 17 01:30 2
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 0 Sep 17 01:30 3
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 0 Sep 17 01:30 4
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 0 Sep 17 01:30 5

 

Now let’s modify /home/r1/1 file and create two files as 6 and 7. And we need rsync to copy this modified file named as 1 and newly created file 6 & 7 to /home/r3 folder.

[root@midnight home]# rsync -aHxv –progress –compare-dest=/home/r2/ /home/r1/ /home/r3/
sending incremental file list
./
1
5 100% 0.00kB/s 0:00:00 (xfr#1, to-chk=6/8)
6
0 100% 0.00kB/s 0:00:00 (xfr#2, to-chk=1/8)
7
0 100% 0.00kB/s 0:00:00 (xfr#3, to-chk=0/8)

sent 285 bytes received 81 bytes 732.00 bytes/sec
total size is 5 speedup is 0.01

Above command copied  modified and newly created files to folder r3

[root@midnight home]# ls -l /home/r3
total 4
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 5 Sep 17 01:36 1
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 0 Sep 17 01:36 6
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 0 Sep 17 01:36 7

Types of Webhosting

Types of webhosting.

There are mainly two types of web hosting 1: Managed hosting 2: Un-Managed hosting.

Managed hosting: Here, web hosting provider provide complete support. Even if client send email and ask them to create email account they will create email account for him.

Creating email account is very simple task client just need to login his cPanel account and Go to Email section and create account with few clicks. In un-manage hosting web hosting provider will reply you and ask to create it yourself 🙂

What are pros and cons of Managed hosting

1: Just email or initiate live chat and ask them to perform any smallest and easiest task.

2: Client can blame for any issue like downtime, site hacked or slow loading speed.

3: Client can get assistance to configure and install 3rd party applications like WordPress ,Joomla or any application which need manual installation.

Cons:

1: Only one so far I noticed you need to pay almost double price every month even if you are managing site/server yourself.

Un-managed hosting pros.

1: Client get hosting at very low cost.

Cons:

1: Client need to take care of his hosting.

2: Maintain backups, Install and configure applications.

3: Client need to learn all technical stuffs ie. optimizing server, services, applications he has installed.

Suggestion: If client want to run wordpress site and he is non-technical guy. Then he shall go for managed hosting once he learn how to download backup and upgrade applications and maintain his site then he can shift to un-managed hosting and save money.